BackgroundFuran fatty acids (F-acids) are valuable minor fatty acids which are appraised for their protective role against lipid oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The most relevant dietary source for F-acids is fish with the predominant occurrence of up to five dimethyl- or monomethyl-substituted homologues. During the screening of fish from a zero discharge aquaculture (ZDA) system we noted the potential presence of unusual F-acids.
We developed a method by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry operated in the selected ion monitoring mode for elucidation of the structures of the uncommon F-acids.
Carp from the ZDA system contained seven non-methylated F-acids with dominance of 8-(5-hexylfuran-2-yl)-octanoic acid (8F6). Non-methylated F-acids have never been detected before in fish. Subsequent analysis of other fish species and a batch of the fish feed confirmed the presence of non-methylated F-acids.
F-acids in fish are derived from the feed. Our investigation indicates that more emphasis should be put on the F-acid concentrations in fish from aquaculture, which appears to depend on the quality of the fish feed.