From broiler breeder hen feed to the egg and embryo: The molecular effects of guanidinoacetate supplementation on creatine transport and synthesis
. POULTRY SCIENCE 2020
Supplementation of broiler breeder hens with beneficial additives bears great potential for affecting nutrient deposition into the fertile egg. Guanidinoacetate (GAA) is the endogenous precursor of creatine that is used as a feed additive for improving cellular energy metabolism in animal nutrition. In the present study, we have investigated whether GAA supplementation in broiler breeder feed affects creatine deposition into the hatching egg and molecular mechanisms of creatine transport and synthesis within hens and their progeny. For this, broiler breeder hens of 47 wk of age were supplemented with 0.15% GAA for 15 wk, and samples from their tissues, hatching eggs and progeny were compared with those of control, nonsupplemented hens. A significant increase in creatine content was found within the yolk and albumen of hatching eggs obtained from the GAA group, compared with the control group. The GAA group exhibited a significant increased creatine transporter gene expression compared with the control group in their small intestines and oviduct. In GAA group progeny, a significant decrease in creatine transporter expression at embryonic day 19 and day of hatch was found, compared with control group progeny. At the day of hatch, creatine synthesis genes (arginine glycine amidinotransferase and guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase) exhibited significant decrease in expression in the GAA group progeny compared with control group progeny. These results indicate that GAA supplementation in broiler breeder feed increases its absorbance and deposition into hatching eggs, subsequently affecting GAA and creatine absorbance and synthesis within broiler progeny.
Incubation temperature affects yolk utilization through changes in expression of yolk sac tissue functional genes
. POULTRY SCIENCE 2020
The yolk sac tissue (YST) is a multifunctional metabolic organ supporting chicken embryonic development. This study examined whether incubation temperatures (ITs) affect YST functions. For this purpose, 300 eggs were assigned to 3 groups and incubated at control IT of 37.8 degrees C, at 1.5 degrees C below, 36.3 degrees C (cold IT), and at 1.5 degrees C above, 39.3 degrees C (hot IT). For each group, 6 embryos' whole body mass and residual yolk (RSY) weights were recorded during incubation, and YST was sampled for both histology and gene expression analysis. YST functionality during incubation was examined by regression analysis, comparing changes in expression patterns of genes involved in lipid uptake and metabolism (LRP2, ApoA1), oligopeptides uptake (PepT1), gluconeogenesis (FBP1), glycogenesis (GYS2), and thyroid hormones regulation (TTR, DIO1, DIO2). Results show that hot and cold ITs affected YST gene expression and yolk utilization. PepT1 expression decreased towards hatch, in both hot and cold ITs, while in the Control IT, it reached a plateau. ApoA1 and DIO2 expression showed a moderate linear fit compared to polynomial fit in the control. GYS2 expression had no change along incubation, while in the control IT, it showed a polynomial fit. Expression of LRP2, FBP1, and DIO1 genes was affected by either cold or hot IT's. TTR expression patterns were similar in all IT groups. The variations in gene expression patterns observed in the 3 ITs can explain the changes in yolk utilization, an important parameter for hatchling quality. While the control IT showed optimal utilization, with an RSY value of 11.12% at the day of hatch, the cold and hot IT groups exhibited lower utilization with an RSY value of 18.18 and 29.99%, respectively. These findings are the first to show that ITs change the expression of key YST genes, leading to variations in yolk utilization by the embryo.
It's All About Timing: Early Feeding Promotes Intestinal Maturation by Shifting the Ratios of Specialized Epithelial Cells in Chicks
. FRONTIERS IN PHYSIOLOGY 2020
The small intestine (SI) of chicks (Gallus gallus) matures rapidly during the initial post-hatch period and acquires digestive, absorptive, and secretive capabilities. The effects of the timing of first feeding on the quantities and distribution of specialized epithelial cells, which generate and maintain SI morphology and functionality, have not yet been examined. In this study, we identified specialized SI epithelial cell sub-types, including stem, progenitor, proliferating, and differentiated cells within crypts and villi of chicks during the first 10 days post-hatch, by in situ hybridization (ISH), immunofluorescence (IF), and histochemical staining. We then examined their quantities and ratios between day of hatch and d10 in chicks that were fed upon hatch [early feeding (EF)], compared to chicks that were fed 24 h post-hatch [delayed feeding (DF)]. Results showed that EF increased total cell quantities in the crypts and villi at days 1, 3, 7, and 10, compared to DF (p < 0.0001). At d3, EF, in comparison to DF, decreased crypt stem cell proportions (p < 0.0001), increased crypt proliferating (p < 0.01) and differentiated (p < 0.05) cell proportions, and increased villus enterocyte proportions (p < 0.01). By d10, EF increased both the quantities and proportions of villus enterocytes and goblet cells, compared to DF. We conclude that feeding upon hatch, compared to 24 h-delayed feeding, enhanced SI maturation and functionality by increasing the quantities and proportions of proliferating and differentiated cells, thus expanding the digestive, absorptive, and secretive cell populations throughout the initial post-hatch period.