Publications by year

<embed>

Publications by Authors

Recent Publications

Contact Us

Department of Animal Sciences
The Robert H. Smith Faculty
of Agricultural, Food & Environment

The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

Herzl 229, Rehovot 7610001, Israel
Phone: +972-(0)8-9489119;
Fax: +972-(0)8-9465763;
Yael Lewitus, Department's Secretary
e-mail: yaellew@savion.huji.ac.il

Publications

2021
Gumulka, M. ; Avital-Cohen, N. ; Rozenboim, I. Determination of Annual Plasma Hormone Levels Associated with Reproduction in Long-Day Breeding Domestic Geese. ANIMALS 2021, 11.Abstract
Simple Summary In domestic birds, breeding practices and optimisation of the microenviroment and nutrition ensure egg production throughout the entire year. However, domestic geese experience an annual cycle of reproductive quiescence and recrudescence. Thus, patterns of reproductive hormones related to the initiation and termination of the breeding-laying period between the sexes seems to be especially important. This paper presents annual patterns of prolactin (PRL), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), testosterone (T), progesterone (P4), and estradiol (E2) in ganders and female geese. Long-day breeding Zatorska geese kept in controlled commercial conditions experienced periods with elevated plasma PRL levels in both sexes post-breeding and during the second half of the breeding-laying period. Increased plasma PRL levels by the end of the breeding-laying period were detected earlier in ganders than in female geese. Annual patterns of thyroid hormones (THs) were partially in agreement with existing theories on the specific role of THs in termination of breeding, which is permissive rather than causal. It may be suggested that ganders terminate their breeding-laying period one month earlier than female geese. These results may be useful in the manipulation of the endocrine axis to extend the duration of seasonal hatching egg production. This paper examines the dynamics of circulating hormone changes connected with reproduction in geese during the annual period related to gonad morphometry. One hundred geese were examined. The levels of prolactin (PRL), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), testosterone (T), progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2) were estimated. In both sexes, PRL level patterns fit a quadratic trend with elevations in the post-breeding and the second half of the breeding-laying periods. During these periods, differences in the PRL level between sexes were noted. In ganders, increased PRL levels during the laying period occurred earlier compared to in female geese. Cubic trends for T and E2 in ganders and quadratic for T, P4, and E2 in female geese were observed. PRL was negatively correlated with T in both sexes and with P4 and E2 in female geese. A higher level of T3 and variation in T4 in ganders with a quartic trend in ganders vs. a quadratic in female geese were noted. Patterns of PRL, T, and E2 suggested that the breeding-laying period in ganders may be shorter than in female geese. These findings will be used to explore experimental manipulations of the endocrine axis to increase synchronisation of both sexes.
Dishon, L. ; Avital-Cohen, N. ; Zaguri, S. ; Bartman, J. ; Heiblum, R. ; Druyan, S. ; Porter, T. E. ; Gumulka, M. ; Rozenboim, I. The effect of selected in ovo green light photostimulation periods on post-hatch broiler growth and somatotropic axis activity. POULTRY SCIENCE 2021, 100.Abstract
Targeted in ovo green light (GL) photostimulation during the last days of broiler egg incubation increases embryonic expression of the somatotropic axis, similar to in ovo green light photo stimulation from embryonic day (ED) 0 to the end of incubation. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of selected in ovo GL photostimulation periods on post-hatch broiler growth. Four hundred twenty fertile broiler eggs were divided into 7 treatment groups: the first incubated in the dark (standard conditions) as a negative control; the second incubated under monochromatic GL from ED0-ED20 (positive control); the third group incubated under monochromatic GL light from ED15-ED20; the fourth, fifth and sixth groups were incubated under monochromatic GL on ED16, ED17, and ED18, respectively; and the seventh group was incubated under monochromatic GL from ED18-ED20. All illumination was provided intermittently using LED lamps. After hatch, all chicks were transferred to a controlled room under standard rearing conditions. The group incubated under green light from ED18 until hatch showed similar results to the positive control group in body weights, as well as breast muscle weights (as % of body weights), and an elevation in the somatotropic axis activity during the experiment. We suggest that broiler embryos can be exposed to in ovo GL photostimulation from ED18 until hatch (hatching period), and still exhibit the same performance as obtained by photostimulation from d 0 of incubation.
Dishon, L. ; Avital-Cohen, N. ; Zaguri, S. ; Bartman, J. ; Heiblum, R. ; Druyan, S. ; Porter, T. E. ; Gumulka, M. ; Rozenboim, I. In ovo green light photostimulation during the late incubation stage affects somatotropic axis activity. POULTRY SCIENCE 2021, 100, 467-473.Abstract
Targeted green light photostimulation during the last stage of broiler incubation increases expression of the somatotropic axis. The purpose of this study was to further shorten the in ovo green light photostimulation and determine the critical age for photo stimulation in broilers embryos, as a future strategy for broiler incubation. Fertile broilers eggs (n = 420) were divided into 5 treatment groups. The first group was incubated under standard conditions (in the dark) as the negative control group. The second was incubated under intermittent monochromatic green light using light emitting diode lamps with an intensity of 0.1 W/m(2) at shell level from embryonic day (ED) 0 of incubation until hatch, as a positive control. The third, fourth, and fifth groups were incubated under intermittent monochromatic green light from ED 15, 16, and 18 of incubation, respectively, until hatch. All treatment groups showed elevated somatotropic axis expression compared with the negative control, with the group incubated under monochromatic green light from ED 18 until hatch showing results closest to the positive control. This suggests that broiler embryos can be exposed to in ovo green light photostimulation from a late stage of incubation (when transferring the eggs to the hatchery) and exhibit essentially the same outcome as obtained by photostimulation during the entire incubation period.
Bartman, J. ; Zaguri, S. ; Avital-Cohen, N. ; Dishon, L. ; Druyan, S. ; Gumulka, M. ; Rozenboim, I. Targeted differential illumination improves reproductive traits of broiler breeder males. POULTRY SCIENCE 2021, 100.Abstract
Artificial targeted illumination has a pivotal role in reproductive processes of poultry. The light-absorption mechanism in birds consists of 2 main components: the eye (retinal photoreceptors) and extraretinal photoreceptors located in the brain. Previous studies conducted on hens have shown that photostimulation of brain extraretinal photoreceptors elevates reproductive activity, whereas retinal photostimulation suppresses it. We tested the effect of targeted differential photostimulation (TDP) on reproductive activities of broiler breeder males. Fifty broiler breeder roosters (Ross), 21 wk of age, were divided into 5 environmentally controlled light-treatment rooms (n = 10) equipped with individual cages. Rooms 1 and 2 had 2 parallel lighting systems consisting of red light (630 nm) and green light (514 nm), and rooms 3 and 4 had parallel red and blue (456 nm) lighting systems. Room 5, illuminated with white light, served as the control. Birds of all groups were kept under short day (6L:18D) for 2 wk with both lighting systems in each treatment room turned on. At 23 wk of age, birds were photostimulated by gradually increasing one of the lighting systems to 14 h of light in each room, while the other lighting system was left on short day (6L:18D). Weekly semen samples were collected until 65 wk of age and analyzed for volume, motility, concentration and vitality. Monthly blood samples were drawn for plasma hormone assays. At 65 wk of age, roosters were euthanized and hypothalamus, pituitary gland, retina and testes samples were taken for mRNA expression analysis. TDP using long-day red light and short-day green light significantly increased reproductive performance, manifested by higher semen volume, motility and concentration, and testis weight; furthermore, this group had higher plasma testosterone levels, higher GnRH mRNA expression in the hypothalamus, lower levels of aromatase in the testes, and lower mRNA expression of hypothalamic serotonin transporter, and of pituitary prolactin and its receptors in the testes. This is the first study showing a positive effect of TDP on reproduction of broiler breeder roosters.
2020
Gumulka, M. ; Hrabia, A. ; Avital-Cohen, N. ; Andres, K. ; Rozenboim, I. The effect of parachlorophenylalanine treatment on the activity of gonadal and lactotrophic axes in native Polish crested chickens stimulated to broodiness. POULTRY SCIENCE 2020, 99, 2708-2717.Abstract
Brooding behavior, a common characteristic of native breeds of the domestic chicken, is marked by elevated prolactin (PRL) levels, which is necessary for incubation and connected with changes in hypothalamic- pituitary-gonadal axis activity. Evidence indicates the serotoninergic system is a potent modulator of PRL secretion. The objective of this study is to investigate whether blocking serotonin synthesis with parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA) prevents incubation behavior in native Polish crested chickens. In addition, we examined the effect of PCPA on the gene expression of the gonadal and lactotrophic axes. Birds were stimulated to broodiness by artificial eggs in nests. At 34 wk of age (April: spring period), the hens were divided into 2 groups (14 hens in each group): control and PCPA-treated (50 mg/kg BW) group. After 5 wk of treatment, the artificial eggs were removed from the nests. Egg production, incubation activity, and levels of plasma ovarian steroids progesterone (P4), testosterone (T), estradiol (E2), and PRL were examined. At the end of the experiment (45 wk of age, June: summer period), ovarian characteristics and mRNA gene expression of gonadal (gonadotropin-releasing hormone [GnRH] I, luteinizing hormone [LH] ss, follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH] ss) and lactotrophic (vasoactive intestinal peptide [VIP], PRL) axes were measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Incubation activity was observed in the hens of both groups but with lower frequency in PCPA-treated birds. Moreover, the PCPA group had a higher cumulative egg production than the controls. During the first six and 8 wk of the experiment, levels of P4 and E2, respectively, were similar in both groups, but all concentrations increased in the PCPA-treated hens after this period. In addition, increased GnRH-I, LH ss, and FSH ss and decreased VIP mRNA expression was observed in the PCPA group compared with the controls. There were no differences in PRL mRNA expression, the PRL level, and ovarian morphometry between the 2 groups. These results indicate that blockage of serotonin synthesis by PCPA does not effectively prevent incubation in native Polish crested chickens. However, treatment with PCPA increased gonadal axis activity and improved reproductive performance.
Zaguri, S. ; Bartman, J. ; Avital-Cohen, N. ; Dishon, L. ; Gumulka, M. ; Chaiseha, Y. ; Druyan, S. ; Rozenboim, I. Targeted differential monochromatic lighting improves broiler breeder reproductive performance. POULTRY SCIENCE 2020, 99, 3697-3708.Abstract
Light perception in birds is composed of the retina and extraretinal sites, located in the brain. Previous studies indicate that selective photostimulation of the eye decreased reproductive performance, whereas extraretinal photostimulation increases it. Differential photostimulation of the retina and extraretinal sites is based on the retina's sensitivity to green wavelengths and on the red wavelengths' ability to penetrate body tissues. We previously found that short-day exposure to green light within a long-day exposure to red light increases reproductive activity in female turkeys and broiler breeder hens. Furthermore, in a study conducted recently in our laboratory, we found that blue light repressed expression of green light receptor in the retina, which can further enhance reproduction activity in broiler breeders. Here, we examined the ``brain activate/eye deactivate'' hypothesis on gonadal axis activity and reproductive performance in a broiler breeder flock. Broiler breeder hens and roosters (ROSS 308) were divided into 5 light-treatment groups (controlled rooms with light-emitting diodes [LED] lamps): warm white (control), long-day (14 h) red (630 nm) and short-day (6 h) green (514 nm) (red-green), long-day green and short-day red (green-red), long-day red and short-day blue (456 nm) (red-blue), and long-day blue and short-day red (blue-red). Birds were reared from 20 to 55 wk of age. Eggs were collected daily. Weekly egg production calculated. All eggs were incubated for fertility and hatchability examination. Blood was drawn monthly for plasma analysis. At 35 wk of age (after peak production) and 55 wk of age (end of the experiment), 10 hens from each treatment group were euthanized, and selected tissues and glands were taken for gene expression trials. Providing long-day red light to extraretinal photoreceptors while maintaining retinal photoreceptors on short day with blue or green light significantly improved reproductive activities, manifested by elevated egg production and gonadal axis activity compared with Controls and primary breeder recommendations. Long-day green light reduced reproductive performances. We suggest that targeted photostimulation enhances reproductive and gonadal axis activities in broiler breeders.
2019
Davidson, I. ; Altory-Natour, A. ; Haddas, R. ; Nagar, S. ; Meir, R. ; Avital-Cohen, N. ; Rozenboim, I. Evaluation of viral-induced stress by quantitating corticosterone in feathers of virus-infected specific pathogen-free chicks. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research 2019. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Physiological stress is known to promote economic losses by causing immunosuppression. Various factors induce stress, including non-optimal management and infection with various pathogens. The concentration of the stress hormone, corticosterone, is indicative of stress in birds. However, its measurement is difficult due to its elevation caused by catching, handling, bleeding, short half-life in the blood, and short secretion period in feces. We describe a novel method to assess corticosterone concentration by sampling feathers. The viruses studied were 2 immunosuppressive viruses, Marek's disease virus and chicken anemia virus, the respiratory viruses, influenza virus H9N2, Newcastle disease virus, and Infectious bronchitis virus. The study contributes novelty as virus-induced stress by feather examination was described sporadically in chickens previously, and feathers were used to detect corticosterone mainly in dead wild and captive birds. Also, the development of extraction method from feathers is novel by using PBS instead of methanol, and by preparing the feather homogenate with steroid displacement reagent.The study findings revealed that virus infections increased the corticosterone concentrations in feather tips to various extents, from 2× to 10× fold, demonstrating that birds endure stress in addition to the clinical and pathological effects induced by the virus infections.
2018
Dishon, L. ; Avital-Cohen, N. ; Zaguri, S. ; Bartman, J. ; Heiblum, R. ; Druyan, S. ; Porter, T. E. ; Gumulka, M. ; Rozenboim, I. In-ovo green light photostimulation during different embryonic stages affect somatotropic axis. Poultry Science 2018, 97, 1998 - 2004. Publisher's VersionAbstract
ABSTRACT Previous studies demonstrated that in-ovo photostimulation with monochromatic green light increased the somatotropic axis expression in broilers embryos. The objective of the current study was to detect the critical period for in-ovo GL photostimulation, in order to find the optimal targeted photostimulation period during the incubation process. Three hundred thirty-six fertile broiler eggs were divided into 4 groups. The first group was incubated under dark conditions as a negative control. The second incubated under intermittent monochromatic green light using light-emitting diode (LED) lamps with an intensity of 0.1 W\m2 at shell level from d 0 of the incubation as a positive control. The third group incubated under intermittent monochromatic green light from d 10 of the incubation. The last group incubated under intermittent monochromatic green light from d 15 of the incubation. In-ovo green light photostimulation from embryonic d 0 (ED0) increased plasma growth hormone (GH), as well as hypothalamic growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and liver growth hormone receptor (GHR) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mRNA levels. In-ovo green light photostimulation from ED10 increased the GH plasma levels compared to the negative control group, without affecting somatotropic axis mRNA genes expressions of GHRH, GHR, and IGF-1. In-ovo green light photostimulation from ED15 caused an increase in both the plasma GH levels and the somatotropic axis mRNA genes expressions of GHRH, GHR, and IGF-1, compared to the negative control group. These results suggest that the critical period of somatotropic axis acceleration by GL photostimulation start at 15 d of incubation.
Sinpru, P. ; Sartsoongnoen, N. ; Rozenboim, I. ; Porter, T. E. ; El Halawani, M. E. ; Chaiseha, Y. The effects of replacing eggs with chicks on mesotocin, dopamine, and prolactin in the native Thai hen. General and Comparative Endocrinology 2018, 263, 32 - 42. Publisher's VersionAbstract
The mesotocinergic (MTergic) and dopaminergic (DAergic) systems have been documented to play pivotal roles in maternal behaviors in native Thai chickens. In native Thai chickens, plasma prolactin (PRL) concentrations are associated with maternal behaviors, which are also controlled by the DAergic system. However, the role of MT in conjunction with the roles of DA and PRL on the neuroendocrine regulation of the transition from incubating to rearing behavior has never been studied. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the association of MT, DA, and PRL during the transition from incubating to rearing behavior in native Thai hens. Using an immunohistochemistry technique, the numbers of MT-immunoreactive (-ir) and tyrosine hydroxylase-ir (TH-ir, a DA marker) neurons were compared between incubating hens (INC; n = 6) and hens for which the incubated eggs were replaced with 3 newly hatched chicks for 3 days after 6, 10, and 14 days of incubation (REC; n = 6). Plasma PRL concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results revealed that the numbers of MT-ir neurons within the nucleus supraopticus, pars ventralis (SOv), nucleus preopticus medialis (POM), and nucleus paraventricularis magnocellularis (PVN) increased in the REC hens when compared with those of the INC hens at 3 different time points (at days 9, 13, and 17). On the other hand, the number of TH-ir neurons in the nucleus intramedialis (nI) decreased in the REC13 and REC17 hens when compared with those of the INC hens. However, the number of TH-ir neurons in the nucleus mamillaris lateralis (ML) only decreased in the REC13 hens when compared with the INC13 hens. The decrease in the numbers of TH-ir neurons within the nI and ML is associated with the decrease in the levels of plasma PRL. This study suggests that the presence of either eggs or chicks is the key factor regulating the MTergic system within the SOv, POM, and PVN and the DAergic system within the nI and ML during the transition from incubating to rearing behavior in native Thai chickens. The results further indicate that these two systems play pivotal roles in the transition from incubating to rearing behavior in this equatorial species.
Heifetz, E. M. ; Rozenboim, I. ; Soller, M. ; Eitan, Y. Hormonal levels of estradiol, testosterone, and progesterone at entry into lay of year 1980 vs. 2000 broiler breeder females under fast and slow release from feed restriction. Poultry Science 2018, 97, 3728 - 3735. Publisher's VersionAbstract
In the mid-1960s egg production, fertility, and hatchability of broiler breeder females dropped precipitously. Due to disrupted follicle hierarchies and development of the erratic oviposition and defective eggs (EODES) syndrome. EODES was controlled by restricting feed. In the 1990s, another set of problems arose at entry of broiler breeders into lay and characterized by high mortality followed by lower peak lay and reduction in egg and chick production. These problems are induced by even slight over-feeding, and hence we termed it the “Over Feeding Complex” (OFC). We have speculated that OFC is a quasi-EODES condition, induced by the intense selection for increased breast proportion. To test this, we compared, under fast (FF) and slow (SF) release from feed restriction, body composition and reproductive performance of a broiler breeder from year 1980 (B1980) and kept without selection for performance traits since then, to a line hatched in 2000 (B2000). During the first 16 d of lay, feeding treatment had little effect on egg mass or Laying % for the B1980 birds, while for the B2000 birds, SF treatment resulted in significantly greater egg mass and Laying % compared to FF, showing that the OFC indeed manifested in this experiment. However, contrary to hypothesis, follicle hierarchies were normal for both lines under both feeding treatments. To gain further insight into the OFC syndrome, we here report levels of estradiol, testosterone, and progesterone for these line and treatment groups in the time period leading up to and into lay. A significant line × feeding treatment interaction effect was found for estradiol and testosterone, to a lesser extent for progesterone. For all 3 hormones, for B1980 levels 2 to 3 wk post entry into lay were similar and intermediate under FF and SF, but differed significantly for B2000, being much greater under SF than under FF. Thus, the hormonal effects were parallel and may explain the egg mass and Laying % effects of FF and SF in the 2 genetic types.
Dishon, L. ; Avital-Cohen, N. ; Zaguri, S. ; Bartman, J. ; Heiblum, R. ; Druyan, S. ; Porter, T. E. ; Gumulka, M. ; Rozenboim, I. In-ovo green light photostimulation during different embryonic stages affect somatotropic axis. Poultry Science 2018, 97, 1998 - 2004. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Previous studies demonstrated that in-ovo photostimulation with monochromatic green light increased the somatotropic axis expression in broilers embryos. The objective of the current study was to detect the critical period for in-ovo GL photostimulation, in order to find the optimal targeted photostimulation period during the incubation process. Three hundred thirty-six fertile broiler eggs were divided into 4 groups. The first group was incubated under dark conditions as a negative control. The second incubated under intermittent monochromatic green light using light-emitting diode (LED) lamps with an intensity of 0.1 W\m2 at shell level from d 0 of the incubation as a positive control. The third group incubated under intermittent monochromatic green light from d 10 of the incubation. The last group incubated under intermittent monochromatic green light from d 15 of the incubation. In-ovo green light photostimulation from embryonic d 0 (ED0) increased plasma growth hormone (GH), as well as hypothalamic growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and liver growth hormone receptor (GHR) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mRNA levels. In-ovo green light photostimulation from ED10 increased the GH plasma levels compared to the negative control group, without affecting somatotropic axis mRNA genes expressions of GHRH, GHR, and IGF-1. In-ovo green light photostimulation from ED15 caused an increase in both the plasma GH levels and the somatotropic axis mRNA genes expressions of GHRH, GHR, and IGF-1, compared to the negative control group. These results suggest that the critical period of somatotropic axis acceleration by GL photostimulation start at 15 d of incubation.
2017
Dishon, L. ; Avital-Cohen, N. ; Malamud, D. ; Heiblum, R. ; Druyan, S. ; Porter, T. E. ; Gumułka, M. ; Rozenboim, I. In-ovo monochromatic green light photostimulation enhances embryonic somatotropic axis activity. Poultry Science 2017, 96, 1884 - 1890. Publisher's VersionAbstract
ABSTRACT Previous studies demonstrated that in ovo photostimulation with monochromatic green light increases body weight and accelerates muscle development in broilers. The mechanism in which in ovo photostimulation accelerates growth and muscle development is not clearly understood. The objective of the current study was to define development of the somatotropic axis in the broiler embryo associated with in ovo green light photostimulation. Two-hundred-forty fertile broiler eggs were divided into 2 groups. The first group was incubated under intermittent monochromatic green light using light-emitting diode (LED) lamps with an intensity of 0.1 W\m2 at shell level, and the second group was incubated under dark conditions and served as control. In ovo green light photostimulation increased plasma growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) levels, as well as hypothalamic growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), liver growth hormone receptor (GHR), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mRNA levels. The in ovo photostimulation did not, however, increase embryo's body weight, breast muscle weight, or liver weight. The results of this study suggest that stimulation with monochromatic green light during incubation increases somatotropic axis expression, as well as plasma prolactin levels, during embryonic development.
Gumułka, M. ; Rozenboim, I. Effect of the age of ganders on reproductive behavior and fertility in a competitive mating structure. Annals of Animal Science 2017, 17. Publisher's Version
Dishon, L. ; Avital-Cohen, N. ; Malamud, D. ; Heiblum, R. ; Druyan, S. ; Porter, T. E. ; Gumulka, M. ; Rozenboim, I. In-ovo monochromatic green light photostimulation enhances embryonic somatotropic axis activity. Poult Sci 2017, 96, 1884-1890. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Previous studies demonstrated that in ovo photostimulation with monochromatic green light increases body weight and accelerates muscle development in broilers. The mechanism in which in ovo photostimulation accelerates growth and muscle development is not clearly understood. The objective of the current study was to define development of the somatotropic axis in the broiler embryo associated with in ovo green light photostimulation. Two-hundred-forty fertile broiler eggs were divided into 2 groups. The first group was incubated under intermittent monochromatic green light using light-emitting diode (LED) lamps with an intensity of 0.1 W\m2 at shell level, and the second group was incubated under dark conditions and served as control. In ovo green light photostimulation increased plasma growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) levels, as well as hypothalamic growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), liver growth hormone receptor (GHR), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mRNA levels. The in ovo photostimulation did not, however, increase embryo's body weight, breast muscle weight, or liver weight. The results of this study suggest that stimulation with monochromatic green light during incubation increases somatotropic axis expression, as well as plasma prolactin levels, during embryonic development.

    2016
    Chaiseha, Y. ; Kamkrathok, B. ; Rozenboim, I. Ovarian steroids involvement in maternal care in the native Thai hen (Gallus domesticus). Animal Biology 2016, 66, 111 - 118. Publisher's Version
    Rozenboim, I. ; Mahato, J. ; Cohen, N. A. ; Tirosh, O. Low protein and high-energy diet: a possible natural cause of fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome in caged White Leghorn laying hens. Poultry Scienceps 2016, 95, 612 - 621. Publisher's VersionAbstract
    Fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) is a metabolic condition of chicken and other birds caused by diverse nutritional, hormonal, environmental, and metabolic factors. Here we studied the effect of different diet composition on the induction of FLHS in single comb White Leghorn (WL) Hy-line laying hens. Seventy six (76) young WL (26 wks old) laying hens and 69 old hens (84 wks old) of the same breed were each divided into 4 treatment groups and provided 4 different diet treatments. The diet treatments included: control (C), 17.5% CP, 3.5% fat (F); normal protein, high fat (HF), 17.5% CP, 7% F; low protein, normal fat (LP), 13% CP, 3.5% F; and low protein, high fat (LPHF), 13% CP, 6.5% F. The diets containing high fat also had a higher ME of 3,000 kcal/kg of feed while the other 2 diets with normal fat had a regular lower amount of ME (2750 kcal/kg). Hen-day egg production (HDEP), ADFI, BW, egg weight, plasma enzymes indicating liver damage (alkaline phosphatase [ALP], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], gamma-glutamyl transferase [GGT]), liver and abdominal fat weight, liver color score (LCS), liver hemorrhagic score (LHS), liver fat content (LFC), liver histological examination, lipid peroxidation product in the liver, and genes indicating liver inflammation were evaluated. HDEP, ADFI, BW, and egg weight were significantly decreased in the LPHF diet group, while egg weight was also decreased in the LP diet group. In the young hens (LPHF group), ALP was found significantly higher at 30 d of diet treatment and was numerically higher throughout the experiment, while AST was significantly higher at 105 d of treatment. LCS, LHS, and LFC were significantly higher in young hens on the LPHF diet treatment. A liver histological examination shows more lipid vacuolization in the LPHF treatment diet. HF or LP alone had no significant effect on LFC, LHS, or LCS. We suggest that LP in the diet with higher ME from fat can be a possible natural cause for predisposing laying hens to FLHS.
    Kamkrathok, B. ; Sartsoongnoen, N. ; Prakobsaeng, N. ; Rozenboim, I. ; Porter, T. E. ; Chaiseha, Y. Distribution of hypothalamic vasoactive intestinal peptide immunoreactive neurons in the male native Thai chicken. 2016, 171, 27 - 35. Publisher's VersionAbstract
    Avian prolactin (PRL) secretion is under stimulatory control by the PRL-releasing factor (PRF), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). The neuroendocrine regulation of the avian reproductive system has been extensively studied in females. However, there are limited data in males. The aim of this study was to elucidate the VIPergic system and its relationship to PRL and testosterone (T) in the male native Thai chicken. The distributions of VIP-immunoreactive (-ir) neurons and fibers were determined by immunohistochemistry. Changes in VIP-ir neurons within the nucleus inferioris hypothalami (IH) and nucleus infundibuli hypothalami (IN) areas were compared across the reproductive stages. Plasma levels of PRL and T were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and then compared across the reproductive stages. The results revealed that the highest accumulations of VIP-ir neurons were concentrated only within the IH-IN, and VIP-ir neurons were not detected within other hypothalamic nuclei. Within the IH-IN, VIP-ir neurons were low in premature and aging males and markedly increased in mature males. Changes in VIP-ir neurons within the IH-IN were directly mirrored with changes in PRL and T levels across the reproductive stages. These results suggested that VIP neurons in the IH-IN play a regulatory role in year-round reproductive activity in males. The present study also provides additional evidence that VIP is the PRF in non-seasonal, continuously breeding equatorial species.